Class 12 Physical Education : Chapter 1 Notes For Board 2021-22

Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 1 Planing in sports  Best Short -Notes For Board Examination 2021-22 Best Complete Notes with the help of these notes you can easily score 100/100 in your upcoming board examinations.

Planing in sports physical education chapter 01
Planing in sports physical education chapter 01

Unit -I: Planning in Sports..!!
Along-with Important Questions

Unit Contents:

1.1 Meaning & Objectives Of Planning
1.2 Various Committees & its.
Responsibilities (pre; during & post)

1.3 Tournament – Knock-Out, League Or
Round Robin & Combination
1.4 *Procedure To Draw Fixtures – Knock-Out (Bye
& Seeding) & League (Staircase & Cyclic).

  • Sure-Shot 5 Marks Questions in Board Examination.

1.1 Meaning and objectives of planning:

Planning is an intellectual process of thinking in
advance about the setting of goals and developing
strategies that are required to attain the goals


“Planning is a way to systematize, direct
and organize the events or competitions
and extract the advantage and benefits of
the available resources.”


1.1 Objectives of planning :

a. To keep control over all activities which
suggests that planning & control are
connected with each other.
b. It also helps in keeping a good control
in organizing a tournament.
c. Reduce the chances of mistakes
d. It suggests programs can be conducted
with proper coordination with the least
mistakes rather than focusing on success.
e. To promote innovative ideas.
f. To provide direction towards the goal
g. To reduce undue pressure
h. To provide proper coordination among the
i. To have good control over all the activities
and To improve efficiency.

1.2 Various committees and responsibilities:

Different committees work together for the smooth
conduct of the sports events.
The various committees are:

(ì) Technical Committee: This committee is responsible
for the technical conduct. This committee selects various
officials such as referees, judges, starters, umpires, time
keepers etc.

(ii)Transport Committee :
This committee is responsible for providing the
facilities regarding the transportation of various teams
If the venue of sports events.

(ììì) Reception Committee:
The members of this committee are responsible to
welcome the Chief Guest and spectators at
opening and closing ceremonies.


(ìv) Boarding and Lodging Committee:
This committee is responsible for making necessary
arrangements for providing accommodation and
serving meals to the sportspersons and other

(v) Ground and Equipment Committee :
This committee makes necessary arrangements of
equipment related to events.

(vi) Medical and First Aid Committee:
This committee is Formed to provide medical
assistance to participants round the clock.

(vii) Protest Committee :
If there is a protest against a judgment, the
members of this committee decide about it.

(viii) Publicity Committee:
All the press releases and press conferences are
conducted by this committee.

(ix) Finance Committee:
This committee is assigned to make the budget for the
event and handle the expenses.

(x) Refreshment Committee :
This committee is formed to profile refreshment to the


1.3 Tournaments:

A tournament is a competition involving
relatively large number of competitors, all
participating in sports or games.
It is a series of contests with several rounds
in which many contestants compete,
individually or as a team to decide the

In other words, a Tournament is a series of
contests in which a number of contestants
compete and the one that prevails through the
final round or that finishes with the best record is declared the winner.
It depends on various factors i.e…
No. of participating teams, availability of grounds
and equipment, No. of days and funds, etc.


Importance of tournament :

1. The sportsman learns discipline by playing
2. The sportsman meets other sportsmen at a
single platform.
3. He learns ethical values such as honesty, fair
play, respect for others.
4. Tournaments provide recreation to all, i.e…
organizers, spectators, students

Type of tournament:

Knock out:
In this type of tournament, the team once
defeated, gets eliminated from the tournament.
Only the winning teams contest in the next rounds.
Opportunities are given to the winning players /

League :
In a single league tournament all participating
teams compete once, with each other, where
as in double league, each team plays with
every as in double league, each team plays
with every other team twice, without any
consideration of victory or defeat.

Combination Tournaments:
Combination tournaments are organized in a group or
zonal matches.
There are mainly four types of combination
1. Knock out cum Knock out
2. League cum league
3. Knock out cum league
4. League cum Knock out

Knock out tournaments:

In the knock out tournaments the team which gets
eliminated gets automatically eliminated from the
In this type of tournament, if a team is defeated
once, it gets eliminated. Only the winners continue in
the competition. It is the fastest method to know
about the winning team in the tournament.

1.4 Procedure To Draw Fixtures :

Seeding a Team:-
The sorting of the teams and fitting them in the
fixtures so that the stronger teams do not meet
each other in earlier rounds is known as Seeding.
This method is good if we know the real strong
teams. The organizers should find out the really
strong teams from the previous tournaments or
old records figure starting a new tournament.


The advantage given to a team usually by drawing a
lot, and exempting it from playing a match in the first
round is known as Bye. These are given to a specific
number of teams in the first round.
The number of byes is decided by subtracting the
number of teams from the next higher number
which is in the power of two’s.

Bye = Next Higher No-no of Team [2n-no of teams]


The procedure of giving byes is as follows:

The first bye is given to the last team of the lower half.
The second bye is given to the first team of the upper
The third bye is given to the first team of the lower half
The fourth bye is given to the last team of the upper
The next bye or byes will be given in the same
order as described above.


Advantages of knock out tournament:

  • These are less expensive.
  • Helpful in enhancing the standard of sports.
  • It requires less time to complete the tournament.
  • Minimum no. of officials are required.

Disadvantages of knock out tournament/Advantage of League Tournaments:

1. There are many chances of elimination of
2. good teams in preliminary rounds.
3. There are many chances of weak teams to
3. enter in the final round.
4. Spectators may not have enough interest in the final round.


Methods of Preparing Fixtures for Knock-out
1. Total number of teams participating in the
tournament = n
2. a Total number of matches to be played in the
tournament = n-1, where n is the total number
of teams participating in the tournament.
3. Total number of rounds played in the

tournament depends upon two things:-

a. The number of teams playing in the
b. The higher nearest number from the total
number of teams of power of two’s

4. Method of determining the number of teams in the upper half and lower half:-

a. If the number of teams is even, then an equal number
of teams will be divided into both halves i.e- n/2,
where n is the total number of teams.

b. If the number of teams is odd, the following
the method is applied: Number of teams in upper
half=(n+1)/2, where n=number of teams. Number of
teams in lower half=(n-1)/2, where n=number of

5. The number of byes is a knock-out tournament
are decided by subtracting the total number of teams
from the next higher nearest number in a power of

(a) Cyclic method:

In the cyclic method, If the number of teams is in even
number, the team number 1 is fixed on the top of left
hand side and then other team numbers in ascending
order consecutively downward and then upward on the
left-hand side and then from the next round teams will
rotate in a clockwise direction. If the number of teams is
odd then the bye is fixed on the top of the right hand
side and rest of the procedure will remain the same. If the
number of teams is even number than the number of rounds
will be (N-1). If the number of teams is an odd number
then the number of rounds will be equal to the number of

(b) Staircase Method:
In the stair-case method, the fixtures are made just
like a ladder or a staircase. In this method, no
bye is given to any team and there is no problem
of an even or odd number of teams.



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