Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 1 **Planing in sports Best Short -Notes For Board Examination 2021-22 **Best Complete Notes with the help of these notes you can easily score 100/100 in your upcoming board examinations.

**Unit -I: Planning in Sports..!!**

Along-with Important Questions

**Unit Contents:**

**1.1 Meaning & Objectives Of Planning**

**1.2 Various Committees & its.**

**Responsibilities (pre; during & post)**

**1.3 Tournament – Knock-Out, League Or**

**Round Robin & Combination**

**1.4 *Procedure To Draw Fixtures – Knock-Out (Bye**

**& Seeding) & League (Staircase & Cyclic).**

- Sure-Shot 5 Marks Questions in Board Examination.

**1.1 Meaning and objectives of planning:**

Planning is an intellectual process of thinking in

advance about the setting of goals and developing

strategies that are required to attain the goals

efficiently.

“OR”

“Planning is a way to systematize, direct

and organize the events or competitions

and extract the advantage and benefits of

the available resources.”

**1.1 Objectives of planning :**

a. To keep control over all activities which

suggests that planning & control are

connected with each other.

b. It also helps in keeping a good control

in organizing a tournament.

c. Reduce the chances of mistakes

d. It suggests programs can be conducted

with proper coordination with the least

mistakes rather than focusing on success.

e. To promote innovative ideas.

f. To provide direction towards the goal

g. To reduce undue pressure

h. To provide proper coordination among the

committees.

i. To have good control over all the activities

and To improve efficiency.

## 1.2 Various committees and responsibilities:

**Different committees work together for the smooth**

**conduct of the sports events.**

The various committees are:

(ì) Technical Committee: This committee is responsible

for the technical conduct. This committee selects various

officials such as referees, judges, starters, umpires, time

keepers etc.

(ii)Transport Committee :

This committee is responsible for providing the

facilities regarding the transportation of various teams

If the venue of sports events.

(ììì) Reception Committee:

The members of this committee are responsible to

welcome the Chief Guest and spectators at

opening and closing ceremonies.

(ìv) Boarding and Lodging Committee:

This committee is responsible for making necessary

arrangements for providing accommodation and

serving meals to the sportspersons and other

officials.

(v) Ground and Equipment Committee :

This committee makes necessary arrangements of

equipment related to events.

(vi) Medical and First Aid Committee:

This committee is Formed to provide medical

assistance to participants round the clock.

(vii) Protest Committee :

If there is a protest against a judgment, the

members of this committee decide about it.

(viii) Publicity Committee:

All the press releases and press conferences are

conducted by this committee.

(ix) Finance Committee:

This committee is assigned to make the budget for the

event and handle the expenses.

(x) Refreshment Committee :

This committee is formed to profile refreshment to the

participants.

## 1.3 Tournaments:

A tournament is a competition involving

relatively large number of competitors, all

participating in sports or games.

It is a series of contests with several rounds

in which many contestants compete,

individually or as a team to decide the

winner.

**In other words,** a Tournament is a series of

contests in which a number of contestants

compete and the one that prevails through the

final round or that finishes with the best record is declared the winner.

It depends on various factors i.e…

No. of participating teams, availability of grounds

and equipment, No. of days and funds, etc.

**Importance of tournament :**

1. The sportsman learns discipline by playing

tournaments.

2. The sportsman meets other sportsmen at a

single platform.

3. He learns ethical values such as honesty, fair

play, respect for others.

4. Tournaments provide recreation to all, i.e…

organizers, spectators, students

**Type of tournament:**

**Knock out:**

In this type of tournament, the team once

defeated, gets eliminated from the tournament.

Only the winning teams contest in the next rounds.

Opportunities are given to the winning players /

teams.

**League :**

In a single league tournament all participating

teams compete once, with each other, where

as in double league, each team plays with

every as in double league, each team plays

with every other team twice, without any

consideration of victory or defeat.

**Combination Tournaments:**

Combination tournaments are organized in a group or

zonal matches.

There are mainly four types of combination

tournaments:

1. Knock out cum Knock out

2. League cum league

3. Knock out cum league

4. League cum Knock out

**Knock out tournaments:**

In the knock out tournaments the team which gets

eliminated gets automatically eliminated from the

tournament.

In this type of tournament, if a team is defeated

once, it gets eliminated. Only the winners continue in

the competition. It is the fastest method to know

about the winning team in the tournament.

**1.4 Procedure To Draw Fixtures :**

Seeding a Team:-

The sorting of the teams and fitting them in the

fixtures so that the stronger teams do not meet

each other in earlier rounds is known as Seeding.

This method is good if we know the real strong

teams. The organizers should find out the really

strong teams from the previous tournaments or

old records figure starting a new tournament.

**Byes:-**

The advantage given to a team usually by drawing a

lot, and exempting it from playing a match in the first

round is known as Bye. These are given to a specific

number of teams in the first round.

The number of byes is decided by subtracting the

number of teams from the next higher number

which is in the power of two’s.

Bye = Next Higher No-no of Team [2n-no of teams]

### The procedure of giving byes is as follows:

The first bye is given to the last team of the lower half.

The second bye is given to the first team of the upper

half.

The third bye is given to the first team of the lower half

The fourth bye is given to the last team of the upper

half.

**The next bye or byes will be given in the same**

**order as described above.**

**Advantages of knock out tournament:**

- These are less expensive.
- Helpful in enhancing the standard of sports.
- It requires less time to complete the tournament.
- Minimum no. of officials are required.

**Disadvantages of knock out tournament/Advantage of League Tournaments:**

1. There are many chances of elimination of

2. good teams in preliminary rounds.

3. There are many chances of weak teams to

3. enter in the final round.

4. Spectators may not have enough interest in the final round.

**Methods of Preparing Fixtures for Knock-out**

Tournaments:-

1. Total number of teams participating in the

tournament = n

2. a Total number of matches to be played in the

tournament = n-1, where n is the total number

of teams participating in the tournament.

3. Total number of rounds played in the

**tournament depends upon two things:-**

a. The number of teams playing in the

tournament.

b. The higher nearest number from the total

number of teams of power of two’s

**4. Method of determining the number of teams in the upper half and lower half**:-

a. If the number of teams is even, then an equal number

of teams will be divided into both halves i.e- n/2,

where n is the total number of teams.

b. If the number of teams is odd, the following

the method is applied: Number of teams in upper

half=(n+1)/2, where n=number of teams. Number of

teams in lower half=(n-1)/2, where n=number of

teams.

5. The number of byes is a knock-out tournament

are decided by subtracting the total number of teams

from the next higher nearest number in a power of

two’s.

**(a) Cyclic method:**

In the cyclic method, If the number of teams is in even

number, the team number 1 is fixed on the top of left

hand side and then other team numbers in ascending

order consecutively downward and then upward on the

left-hand side and then from the next round teams will

rotate in a clockwise direction. If the number of teams is

odd then the bye is fixed on the top of the right hand

side and rest of the procedure will remain the same. If the

number of teams is even number than the number of rounds

will be (N-1). If the number of teams is an odd number

then the number of rounds will be equal to the number of

teams.

**(b) Staircase Method:**

In the stair-case method, the fixtures are made just

like a ladder or a staircase. In this method, no

bye is given to any team and there is no problem

of an even or odd number of teams.